Macroevolution: Explanation, Interpretation, Evidence

  • Provides a unique multidisciplinary approach to understand macroevolution
  • Presents state of the art scientific methodologies
  • Written by international experts from different fields

This book is divided in two parts, the first of which shows how, beyond paleontology and systematics, macroevolutionary theories apply key insights from ecology and biogeography, developmental biology, biophysics, molecular phylogenetics, and even the sociocultural sciences to explain evolution in deep time. In the second part, the phenomenon of macroevolution is examined with the help of real life-history case studies on the evolution of eukaryotic sex, the formation of anatomical form and body-plans, extinction and speciation events of marine invertebrates, hominin evolution and species conservation ethics.
The book brings together leading experts, who explain pivotal concepts such as Punctuated Equilibria, Stasis, Developmental Constraints, Adaptive Radiations, Habitat Tracking, Turnovers, (Mass) Extinctions, Species Sorting, Major Transitions, Trends, and Hierarchies – key premises that allow macroevolutionary epistemic frameworks to transcend microevolutionary theories that focus on genetic variation, selection, migration and fitness.
Along the way, the contributing authors review ongoing debates and current scientific challenges; detail new and fascinating scientific tools and techniques that allow us to cross the classic borders between disciplines; demonstrate how their theories make it possible to extend the Modern Synthesis; present guidelines on how the macroevolutionary field could be further developed; and provide a rich view of just how it was that life evolved across time and space. In short, this book is a must-read for active scholars and, because the technical aspects are fully explained, it is also accessible for non-specialists.
Understanding evolution requires a solid grasp of above-population phenomena. Species are real biological individuals, and abiotic factors impact the future course of evolution. Beyond observation, when the explanation of macroevolution is the goal, we need both evidence and theory that enable us to explain and interpret how life evolves at the grand scale.

Table of contents

Preface and Acknowledgements by the Editors

1. Emanuele Serrelli and Nathalie Gontier – Introduction: Macroevolutionary Issues and Approaches in Evolutionary Biology

Part 1: Macroevolutionary Explanations and Interpretations

2. Douglas J. Futuyma – Can Modern Evolutionary Theory Explain Macroevolution?

3. Folmer Bokma – Evolution as a Largely Autonomous Process

4. Emanuele Serrelli – Visualizing Macroevolution: From Adaptive Landscapes to Compositions of Multiple Spaces

5. Stanley S. Salthe – Toward a Natural Philosophy of Macroevolution

6. Ilya Tëmkin and Niles Eldredge – Networks and Hierarchies: Approaching Complexity in Evolutionary Theory

7. Nathalie Gontier – Uniting Micro- with Macroevolution into an Extended Synthesis: Reintegrating Life’s Natural History into Evolution Studies

Part 2: Evidencing Macroevolution with Case Studies

8. Lutz Becks and Yasaman Alavi – Using Microevolution to Explain the Macroevolutionary Observations for the Evolution of Sex

9. Alycia L. Stigall – Speciation: Expanding the Role of Biogeography and Niche Breadth in Macroevolutionary Theory

10. Alessandro Minelli – Morphological Misfits and the Architecture of Development

11. Bernard Wood and Mark Grabowski – Macroevolution In and Around the Hominin Clade

12. Elena Casetta and Jorge Marques da Silva – Facing the Big Sixth: From Prioritizing Species to Conserving Biodiversity


Look for it in the Publications page (with additional links):

Serrelli E, Gontier N, eds. (forthcoming). Macroevolution: Explanation, Interpretation, Evidence. Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-15044-4 [http://hdl.handle.net/10281/49988]

http://www.springer.com/life+sciences/evolutionary+%26+developmental+biology/book/978-3-319-15044-4

Empathy towards the “living planet”: a knowledge paradox in the Anthropocene?

I paradossi di Gaia [Gaia’s paradoxes]

The paradoxes of Gaia for education in the anthropocene
Gaia – EARTH DAY by Alice Popkorn
Starting picture + Goddess by Marcus Ranum

Abstract: Empathy towards planet Earth seems to be the crux of an education paradox in the anthropocene, well exemplified by the story of “Gaia” in the scientific community and in the global society. The image of the world as a living being is probably as old as our species. Ancient views based on Mother Earth have been providing the narrative framework for education in many cultures for thousands years, and some aspects are somehow retraced in today’s sustainability education, although with different nuances and metaphysical assumptions. Around 1970, the idea of Earth as an organism was named “Gaia” and filled with scientific content by James Lovelock. He pointed out signatures of global processes thereby, he argued, the biosphere participates into planetary self-regulation around optimal conditions, just like in the physiology of a giant organism. In the scientific community Gaia would have troubled fortune: as a “hypothesis” or “theory” it was afflicted by serious and insistent objections, and it never got to be acknowledged. At the same time, for the public Gaia never ceased to be terribly attractive. Indeed, its communication effectiveness was emphasized by its advocates, who pointed out its educational potential in sensitizing people to care for the planet. But these aspects, too, were seen negatively by critics: the ‘homeostatic’ properties of Gaia would rather play in favor of passive attitudes and of economic interests of impacting and polluting companies; moreover, the organismal nature of Gaia would stimulate mystical views, ‘pagan religions’, and ultimately an anti-scientific mindset. The solution to this paradox should perhaps be sought in the double direction of reconsidering some human dimensions of scientific work and of setting up scientific education more coherent with the “Nature of Science” in the Anthropocene.

Event: Biodiversità ed estensione dell’empatia [Biodiversity and empathy extension]

The meeting aims to contribute to probe the foundations of an ethical approach to biodiversity and of human responsibility upon the non-human, through a reflection on those long-term transformations of science, society, and philosophical self-representation that have modified the horizon of human relations.
Since the 1960s, the ecological urgency has strongly pushed towards an assumption of responsibility towards the environment. In those years, science itself had warned about climate change and vertiginous biodiversity reduction that are now seen to characterize the current epoch, the “anthropocene”. An integrated reflection on biodiversity arose, capable of overcoming the boundaries of Modern philosophical anthropology, and situating humans into a system of relationships and interdependencies embracing non-human forms–from other living beings to abiotic environmental factors. The peculiar ability of broadening the horizon of empathic experience beyond mirroring seems to be rooted in massive developments of neuroscientific knowledge and technology, as well as in the cognitive and affective construction of our species. A discussion on evolution (natural and socio-cultural) and a renewed reflection on the very concept of human nature are therefore necessary. Just at the peak of science and technology’s manipulative power upon living nature, some authors glimpse the rise of a new opportunity: that of an empathic “age” or “civilization” (Rifkin 2010, De Waal 2010), where relatioships with different forms of “otherness” are managed in an inclusive and relational way.

Other speakers: S. Caianiello (chair), A. Minelli, L. Fogassi, C. Morabito & G. Galloni, G. Fiorito, U. Leone.

Organization: L’evento è organizzato con i fondi del Progetto PRIN 2010-2011 “Ethos e Natura. Modelli storici, problemi teorici e questioni metodologiche”, cofinanziato dal MIUR. Coordinatore nazionale: Prof. Franco Biasutti (Unità di ricerca di Catania, coordinata da G. Bentivegna, su “L’agire morale tra natura e cultura. Lineamenti storiografici e riflessioni teoriche”). Con la collaborazione dell’Istituto per la storia del pensiero filosofico e scientifico moderno del C.N.R., (nel contesto del ciclo “Osservatorio sui saperi umanistici”) e del Centro Interuniversitario “Res Viva”. Inserita nel programma del Dottorato di Filosofia della Federico II (in particolare curriculum di bioetica).


Look for it in the Talks page (with additional links):

2015, Feb 4 (h.9:00) – “Biodiversità ed estensione dell’empatia”, org. by Istituto per la Storia del Pensiero Filosofico e Scientifico Moderno (ISPF), C.N.R., Sezione di Filosofia del Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici dell’Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Naples, IT: I paradossi di Gaia. Conference talk.

Borzoo Pourabdollahian – Towards a sustainable society through serious gaming

CISEPS – Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Economics, Psychology and Social Sciences

Towards a sustainable society through serious gaming

Dr. Borzoo Pourabdollahian
Politecnico di Milano

Thursday, November 27, 12:00pm
Room U6-3143, Piazza dell’Ateneo Nuovo 1, Milano

Borzoo Pourabdollahian - Towards a sustainable society through serious gamingAbstract: The main challenge for societies is to find mechanisms to arouse among their citizens better insights about the importance of sustainability, and, more importantly, to encourage people to change their habits and behaviours towards being “sustainable citizens”. Serious games simulate real environments. They can be used as pedagogical tools in creating sustainable societies: players become motivated to behave in a sustainable manner in order to achieve the ultimate goal of the game, which represents a prosperity phenomenon. The seminar will present the audience with a set of games specifically designed to increase the player’s awareness about those activities and practices which are necessary for every specific sector of a society (e.g. Health, Science, Manufacturing, Education, Business, etc.) to turn sustainable. In particular, we will discuss the mechanisms laid in the design and implementation of each game to get better understanding of the ways in which learning contents are transferred into players’ mind and behaviour, in a scale from abstract knowledge to behavioural changes.

Borzoo Pourabdollahian obtained his PhD from Politecnico di Milano in 2014. His contribution is a guideline towards designing serious games in the areas related to manufacturing education. He has been involved in some projects funded by European Union under 7th framework program. Particularly, GaLA (Game and Learning Alliance) and TARGET (Transformative, Adaptive, Responsive and enGaging EnvironmenT). He has presented several papers in prominent conferences and is currently a reviewer of Journal of Transactions on Education.

Anthropocene Campus: Experiment in Higher Education

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I participate in ANTHROPOCENE CAMPUSanthropocene, Berlin, November 14-22, 2014. I have been selected among “100 outstanding post graduates as well as actors from culture, society, and the arts”, nominated by prof. Elena Bougleux (University of Bergamo).

Encouraging new forms of transdisciplinary discourse and research THE ANTHROPOCENE PROJECT 2013/14 at Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin (HKW) aims to investigate the manifold implications of the Anthropocene hypothesis for cultures of knowledge. If indeed humankind has become the dominant biogeophysical force, effecting changes on a planetary scale, how can the arts, sciences and humanities contribute to a critical awareness, understanding and responsible co-shaping of these transformations? How can creative and problem-oriented modes of knowledge production and educational practices be developed?

Copyright: Globaia, Planet Under Pressure, SEI, SRC, CSIRO. This film was commissioned by the Planet Under Pressure conference, London 26-29 March, a major international conference focusing on solutions. planetunderpressure2012.net

The ANTHROPOCENE CURRICULUM addresses these questions by way of a cross-disciplinary experiment in higher education. Instigated by HKW and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin (MPIWG) the project has brought together a group of 27 renowned university teachers from science, humanities, and art & design to collaboratively develop a set of topics relevant to the Anthropocene in an attempt to encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, mutual learning, and civic commitment as integral part into the curricula of universities and research institutions.

This exemplary curriculum will be put into teaching practice at the ANTHROPOCENE CAMPUS taking place November 14-22, 2014 at HKW in Berlin. One hundred international participants will be given the opportunity to engage in this curricular experiment, contributing their own perspectives and expertise. The Campus provides a transdisciplinary co-learning space for scholars from a wide range of disciplinary, academic, and professional backgrounds and opens up a forum for exploring the scopes, scales, and designs of Anthropocene relevant knowledge. The ANTHROPOCENE CAMPUS will be a central component of a series of public events at HKW – including lectures, workshops, exhibitions, screenings, and artistic events –, by which the two-year ANTHROPOCENE PROJECT will come to its close. An essential part of the output of the ANTHROPOCENE CURRICULUM will be the collaborative production of an ANTHROPOCENE COURSEBOOK.

Emanuele at the Anthropocene Campus:

More pictures at Haus der Kulturen der Welt website.

Species on the Threshold

Species on the Threshold: How Cultural Evolution Changes the Landscapes of Our Life

Emanuele Serrelli spoke on the relationship between cultural and biological evolution at the conference:

La specie sulla soglia: come l’evoluzione culturale cambia i paesaggi della nostra vita

Venerdì, 31 Ottobre 2014
16:30 – 19:30
Mostra d’Oltremare, Arena Flegrea, Napoli (Forum Internazionale delle Culture)

L’importanza di prendere atto che l’evoluzione sia divenuta soprattutto culturale è una delle principali responsabilità della nostra specie che ci vede “sulla soglia” di un cambiamento e di un apprendimento epocali. La cultura ha oggi il compito di attivare la responsabilità individuale e collettiva per essere all’altezza di questo processo di profonda trasformazione.

A cura di Amici della terra club dell’Irpinia associazione ONLUS e Hirpus associazione di promozione sociale. Part of the Series: Passavamo sulla terra leggeri: Culture, Educazione, Sostenibilità.

KeynoteVincenzo Moretti, Sociologo, responsabile della sezione Società Culture e Innovazione alla Fondazione Giuseppe Di Vittorio

RoundtableGiancarlo Blasi, ingegnere, socio di HIRPUS APS (moderator); Giovanni Mastino, fisico, Associazione Amici della Terra Italia; Luca Mori, filosofo, Università di Pisa; Emanuele Serrelli, filosofo della scienza, Università di Milano Bicocca; Giuseppe Bruno, ingegnere, Università di Napoli.

All videos here!!!

Emanuele Serrelli on the relationship between cultural and biological evolution:


2014, Oct 31 (h.16:30-19:30) – Org. Hirpus, Naples, Forum Universale delle Culture: La specie sulla soglia: come l’evoluzione culturale cambia i paesaggi della nostra vita. With V. Moretti, G. Blasi, L. Famiglietti, L. Mori, G. Bruno, R. Filippini. Public conference.

http://www.forumculture.org/event.cfm?id=663

Narrazione: Scienze, Metodi e Poetiche (specialization course, 2nd edition)

I teach in this specialization course at the University of Milano Bicocca. Look for more information on Academia.edu.

narrazione attenti al gufoPresentazione

Il corso si rivolge a tutti coloro che intendano approfondire nello studio e soprattutto nella pratica, ovvero nell’esperienza, gli aspetti formativi della narrazione nei suoi risvolti riflessivi, progettuali e prospettivi ma soprattutto operativi.

Il corso si propone di formare esperti in grado di padroneggiare e progettare il potenziale educativo e multidisciplinare della narrazione, sia all’interno delle consuete prassi educative e scolastiche, sia nelle ideazioni, progettazioni e realizzazioni di percorsi laboratoriali e di formazione che abbiano come metodologia preferenziale quella di tipo narrativo.

Le scienze della narrazione

In tal senso, il corso svilupperà il tema della possibilità narrativa in chiave interdisciplinare, accogliendo al suo interno esperti di discipline le più diverse, per poter esplorare la “narrazione” con lenti ora pedagogiche, ora letterarie, psicanalitiche, sociologiche, biologiche, terapeutiche, antropologiche, giornalistiche…

Verranno presentate le prospettive di chi fa della narrazione uno strumento o un ambiente di marketing, di vendita, di comunicazione; i partecipanti incontreranno docenti del mondo accademico ma anche esperti e professionisti della comunicazione, di altre culture, esploratori dell’elemento narrativo inteso anche come testualità del quotidiano, della sfera religiosa, artistica, cinematografica, teatrale, museale, fotografica, fino alle più recenti attenzioni e declinazioni del giornalismo in chiave biografica e dell’attenzione anche politica al valore delle “storie”.

I metodi e le poetiche della narrazione

Il corso esplorerà le declinazioni della narrazione attraversando la fotografia, il cinema, il teatro, il testo filosofico, il dialogo e la conversazione, il testo narrativo, epistolare, poetico, su web o altri supporti, i linguaggi e le modalità communicative e narrative dei mass media.

La proposta formativa si connota e si esplica in generi narrativi e soprattutto nel concetto e nelle forme della trama, che diviene un’esperienza di apprendimento, di espressione estetica, ma soprattutto una possibilità di visione e di risignificazione.

Obiettivi formativi e professionalizzanti

Il corso si rivolge a coloro che intendano attraversare in modo approfondito il territorio narrativo, per apprendere ed affinare un sapere connessionale che accoglie la grande complessità dei paradigmi del racconto. In termini professionali, i partecipanti al corso acquisiranno i codici per leggere il narrativo, nonché gli strumenti per crearlo, costruendo per sé una competenza assimilabile al sempre più attuale e cogente concetto di narratività capitalizzabile.

Segreteria didattica

Per informazioni sul corso è possibile scrivere all’indirizzo narrazione@unimib.it.

È inoltre possibile prendere appuntamento per un colloquio con la direttrice scientifica del corso di perfezionamento, dott.ssa Emanuela Mancino

Sede del corso

Il corso si svolgerà interamente presso il Centro di Alta Formazione Universiscuola – Villa Di Breme – Forno – via Martinelli 23, Cinisello Balsamo (MI).

Cloud Computing and Research

Gestire la propria banca dati bibliografica.

Mendeley è un sistema di gestione di articoli scientifici, che permette la catalogazione di file (di qualunque formato), il reperimento automatico di metadati, l’impaginazione delle citazioni e molto altro. Offre inoltre una pagina pubblica sul web in cui mantenere aggiornato il proprio curriculum accademico.

La partecipazione è libera.

Alla presentazione dei software faranno seguito un’esercitazione pratica e un momento di discussione sulle implicazioni dell’uso delle tecnologie nel lavoro di ricerca nelle Scienze Umane. I partecipanti sono invitati a presentarsi muniti del proprio laptop o tablet.

Questa iniziativa è promossa dal gruppo dei non strutturati del Dipartimento.


Look for it in the Talks page (with additional links):

2014, Nov 12 (h.13:30) – Doctorate Course in Education and Communication Sciences, Department of Human Sciences, University of Milano Bicocca, IT: Cloud computing e ricerca. Gestire la propria banca dati bibliografica. With Andrea Mangiatordi. Seminar.

Welcome to my brand new website!

My door tag at NESCent, July 2014
My door tag at NESCent, July 2014

This is my new website.

It is already full of materials that were migrated from the former platform. Please be patient if the migration is not completed, yet: each and every publication or talk/lab is going to have a dedicated post.

You can navigate chronologically from the Publications page or from the Talks, Labs, Seminars page; otherwise, from the sidebar on your right, you can look for specific kinds of entries (papers, conferences, books, teaching, media, etc.) or navigate by topic with the tag cloud. I will do my best to keep you up to date on my academic activities.

Further below on the right toolbar, you also find a new “Have you seen…?” section that gets updated with news and interesting stuff I run into on the web. The section is linked with my Delicious account.

Stay in tune!

Cheers,

Emanuele

Lasting Teachings from Gregory Bateson

Abstract: Gregory Bateson’s thinking is an enduring source of renovation for our thinking. The deep effects of his writings are here exemplified by four key-words from his philosophical vocabulary: CREATURE, MAP, METAPHOR, and GRACE. The movements correlated with this key-words are explored in the different fields of pedagogy, biographical research, philosophy, natural sciences, psychological care. In consonance with Bateson’s teaching, these fields are connected with each other, and with life and experience. In Bateson, reflections on life, knowledge, storymaking, beauty are joined in a unique and recursive unity that will not stop nourishing itself and more people.

Key words: Gregory Bateson, Epistemology, Learning, Context, Constructivism, Scientific method, Biography, Structure, Nature


Look for it in the Publications page (with additional links):

Bella A, Galimberti A, Serrelli E, Vitale A (2014). Gregory Bateson ha ancora qualcosa da insegnare?. Paradigmi. Rivista di critica filosofica 2/2014: 155-181. ISSN 1120-3404 doi 10.3280/PARA2014-002009 [http://hdl.handle.net/10281/52024]

Visualizing Macroevolution

fig03b_simpson_modesThe adaptive landscape is an important diagrammatic concept that was conceived in population genetics. During the Modern Synthesis, in the first half of the Twentieth Century, the landscape imagery was used to represent evolution on a large scale, aiding in the construction of a common language for a new evolutionary biology. Not only historic adaptive landscapes by Dobzhansky, Simpson, and others are a record of how macroevolution was thought of in those decades; they stimulate reflection on ‘combination spaces’ that underlie them. In fact, any landscape diagram is the three-dimensional transposition of a multidimensional space of combinations of genes, morphological traits, or other kinds of variables. This is an important and enduring general point of awareness: the diagram displays some aspects of the considered space while hiding others, exposing the author and the user to incomplete understanding and to conflating different spaces. Today, macroevolution is studied as a multifarious exploration of spaces of possibilities of all different sorts, interconnected in complex ways: genotype spaces, molecular spaces, morphospaces, geographical spaces, ecological spaces, genealogical spaces. Actual macroevolutionary stories and outcomes are a subset of what is, in principle, possible in all of these spaces, composed by possible combinations—of genes, nucleotides, morphological traits, environmental variables. Visualizations of macroevolution are a challenge of showing both distinction and correlation between spaces of possibilities.

Keywords: adaptation, speciation, macroevolution, visualization


Look for it in the Publications page (with additional links):

Serrelli E (forthcoming). Visualizing macroevolution: from adaptive landscapes to compositions of multiple spaces. In Serrelli E, Gontier N, eds., Macroevolution: explanation, interpretation, evidence. Interdisciplinary Evolution Research series, Springer. [http://hdl.handle.net/10281/49988]